Efflorescence is a whitish bloom, film, or crystal formation resulting from deposition of mineral salts. This deposition occurs when
water migrates from the interior of concrete, bringing with it, the particulate matter that eventually forms the efflorescence, then the water subsequently evaporates from the concrete surface, leaving
efflorescence in its wake. These Minerals / salts may have been present in the concrete's aggregates or mixing water when the concrete was produced, or possibly, soluble calcium hydroxide may be leaching to
As water moves through a concrete structure, it picks up mineral salts end dissolves them. As water reaches the surface, it evaporates
leaving the salts deposited on the surface. This is found, for instance, when water percolates through poorly compacted concrete, or through cracks. When soluble calcium hydroxide is brought to the surface, the
calcium hydroxide reacts with atmospheric calcium dioxide to form calcium carbonate. This deposit may build a thick film over time.
In addition to calcium carbonate, the deposits may also consist of the sulfates of sodium, potassium, or calcium. These latter salts are
described as temporary efflorescence because they can be washed off with water and usually disappear during a rainstorm. However, the calcium carbonate type of efflorescence is described as permanent because it
cannot be removed with water it generally had to be removed with an acid, usually with a dilute solution of muriatic acid. However, much care must be taken in this operation since muriatic acid may also attack
concrete as well as the efflorescent deposit, thus, the need for development of a gentler, more user-friendly yet effective, efflorescence cleaning agent. EFFLORESCENCE REMOVER is now available as an alternative
to muriatic acid.
EFFLORESCENCE REMOVER was developed, from a mixed acids base, for the cleaning of efflorescence, while minimizing potential damage to the
surface from which it was cleaned, and even though, EFFLORESCENCE REMOVER should not be allowed to contact eyes end skin, it is much more user-friendly then muriatic acid efflorescence cleaner.
For efflorescence to occur, three conditions must exist simultaneously (1) a source of soluble salts must be available inside the
effected masonry (2) free moisture or water must be available for the salts to dissolve in (3) a means of movement. i.e., hydrostatic pressure for migration of the dissolved salts mixture. If any of the
afore-mentioned conditions are eliminated, or become non-existent, efflorescence could not occur.
As for efflorescence removal, always use the gentlest possible cleaning method, or material, progressing towards more harsher measures
only if necessary, in order to avoid damaging the surface of the affected masonry, where possible. Before undertaking the task of removing efflorescence, determine the source(s) of the problem end take steps to
correct the problem(s), where practical. The first and gentlest method of removing efflorescence, which is dry-brushing, should first be tried. If dry-brushing is not effective, try using a brush that is dipped
in water, or use a gentle water-flood while brushing, water pressure should always be kept alt the lowest effective level, while removing efflorescence. Masonry cleaners, acids, end other chemicals should only
be used when gentler techniques prove unsuccessful.
Where harsher than dry brushing or water brushing is required, for efflorescence removal, EFFLORESCENCE REMOVER should be the acid
cleaner of choice, since it is especially designed to be gentle to mortar, as well as, more user-friendly. Apply sparingly using a medium-bristled brush, or in sensitive areas where splashing or drippage could
cause damage, a sponge, applied only where efflorescence actually is, avoiding applying the acid cleaner on the surrounding mortar, where not needed. After cleaning the areas of efflorescence, these areas should
immediately be washed to remove any salts which efflorescence any salts which may have formed from the spent acid.
NOTE: Since acid applications of any sort should be considered delicate operation, since acid must be applied uniformly in terms of
concentration, quantity, and duration of scrubbing action, therefore, trying it on samples, of material being cleaned, prior to actual use, is essential, even recommended, where practical.